Orthetrum kristenseni Ris, 1911
Ethiopian Skimmer

Type locality: Kunhe, Ethiopia


Male is similar to O. caffrum and O. camerunense by (a) thorax with 1-3 contrasting whitish stripes on each side, each one with dark border on anterior or both sides; (b) when stripes are faint or invisible due to pruinosity, then labium and labrum all pale, lobe of hamule low and Abd always shorter than Hw; (c) metepimeral carina at most with posterior corner marked with black; Dorsal carina of Abd without black, although kristenseni in Ethiopia might be black; (d) hamule without such ridge and/or hook is placed at its end, profile of hamule thus has 2 points (1 if lobe is low), hook being anterior one; (e) hook of hamule turned for- or backward. However, differs by (1) being restricted to the Ethiopian highlands; (2) whitish stripe on mesepimeron lies against metastigma; (3) wings often amber rather than clear around nodes; (4) hook of hamule turned backward rather than forward, with lobe pointed. [Adapted from Dijkstra & Clausnitzer 2014; this diagnosis not yet verified by author]

Habitat description

Mostly seeps and springs, but also headwater streams and possibly larger streams and standing waters, in open landscapes. Probably especially calmer sections (like pools) with emergent vegetation and a soft (like muddy) bottom. From 1000 to 3300 m above sea level.


confirmed: Ethiopia

© KD Dijkstra

Abdominal segment 2 (lateral view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.


  • Ris, F. (1911). Zwei neue afrikanische Arten der Libellulinen-Gattung Orthetrum. Revue Zoologique Africaine, 1, 125-131. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1936). Studies on African Odonata, with synonymy and descriptions of new species and subspecies. Transactions Royal Entomological Society London, 85, 467-498. [PDF file]
  • Clausnitzer, V., and Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2005). The dragonflies (Odonata) of Ethiopia, with notes on the status of endemic taxa and the description of a new species. Entomologische Zeitschrift, 115, 117-130. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1955). The Odonata of N. Angola. Part I. Publicacoes culturais Companhia Diamantes Angola, 27, 11-63. [PDF file]

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. http://addo.adu.org.za/ [2019-03-20].