Orthetrum brachiale (Palisot de Beauvois, 1817)
Banded Skimmer

Type locality: Zanzibar and Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

Diagnosis

Male is similar to O. stemmale by (a) being widespread and abundant; (b) frons at most with dorsal dark markings running down onto shields; (c) Pt usually 3 mm or longer, 10% of Hw length or more; (d) 2 cell-rows in radial planate, sum of cell-doublings in all wings 11-29 [4-29]³; (e) Abd usually shorter than Hw (if longer, S4-6 with transverse bands); (f) lobe of hamule prominent, space between it and hook usually gaping cleft; (g) pale markings on S4-6 form transverse subapical bands, longitudinal streaks closer to dorsal than lateral carinae, or segments largely pale. However, differs by (1) labrum usually all pale, rather than with black border; (2) subcostal Ax always pale rather than dark; (3) hook of hamule small with rounded border, like claw of cat; (4) lobe without perpendicular ridge. [Adapted from Dijkstra & Clausnitzer 2014; this diagnosis not yet verified by author]

Habitat description

Standing and often temporary waters in open landscapes, but sometimes also in open areas in forest or shaded by gallery forest. Often with emergent vegetation, coarse detritus and a sandy and/or soft (like muddy) bottom. From 0 to 2100 m above sea level, but mostly below 1500.

Distribution

confirmed: Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Côte d'Ivoire; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo-Brazzaville; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinee-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Republic of Guinea; Republic of South Africa; Rwanda; São Tomé & Príncipe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe


Male © Nicolas Meziere


Female © Nicolas Meziere


Abdominal segment 2 (lateral view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.


Barcode specimen(s):


Adult, male; Gabon, Haut-Ogoué, Plateaux Batékés © Mézière, Nicolas


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, Upemba National Park © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Adult, male; Angola, Uige Province, new campus site and environs © Clausnitzer, V. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Liberia, Nimba County, East Nimba Nature Reserve © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Female; Liberia, Nimba County, Mt Tokadeh © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Female; Liberia, Nimba County, Lugbeyee-Bonlah Road © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Tanzania, Kigoma Region, Lower Malagarasi Basin © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Liberia, Nimba County, Lugbeyee-Bonlah Road © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Gabon, Haut-Ogooué, Mounana © Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Nicolas Mézière


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Province Orientale, © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Province Orientale, Lower Lomami

References

  • de Palisot de Beauvois, A.M.F.J. (1805). Insectes recueillis en Afrique et en Amérique dans les royaumes d'Oware et de Benin, à Saint-Domingue et dans les États-Unis, pendant les années, 1786-1797.
  • Ris, F. (1921). The Odonata or Dragonflies of South Africa. Annals South African Museum, XVIII, 245-452. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1936) Studies on African Odonata, with synonymy and descriptions of new species and subspecies. Transactions Royal Entomological Society London 85 (20): 467-498 [PDF file]
  • Sjöstedt, Y. (1917). Odonaten aus Abessinien, Ost- und Westafrika. Arkiv Zoologi, 11, 1-27.
  • Balinsky, B.I. (1961). Observations on the dragonfly fauna of the coastal region of Zululand, with descriptions of three new species (Odonata). Journal Entomological Society Southern Africa, 24, 72-91. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1931). A list of the Odonata of British Somaliland and a description of a new species of the genus Enallagma. Entomologist, 64, 274-278. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1961). Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central Africa. Occasional Papers Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 14, 1-97. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1966). Check-list of dragonflies (Odonata) from Malawi, with description of a new Teinobasis Kirby. Arnoldia, 2, 1-24. [PDF file]
  • Karsch, F. (1899). Odonaten von Johann-Alrecht-Höhe (Nord- Kamerun), gesammelt von Herrn Leopold Conradt. Entomologische Nachrichten, 25, 161-176. [PDF file]
  • Sjöstedt, Y. (1900). Odonaten aus Kamerun, West -Afrika. Beltrage Zur Kenntnis der insektenfauna von Kamerun. Binhang Kongliga Svenka Vetenskaps Akademiens Handlingar, 25, 1-62.
  • Calvert, P.P. (1892). Preliminary notes on some African Odonata. Transactions American Entomological Society, 19, 161-164. [PDF file]
  • Förster, F. (1898). Odonaten des Transvaalstaaten. II. Entomologische Nachrichten, 24, 166-172.
  • Martin, R. (1907). Odonates de la Guinée espagnole. Memorias Sociedad espanola Historia natural, 1, 421-432. [PDF file]
  • Schouteden, H. (1934). Annales Musee Congo belge Zoologie 3 Section 2, 3, 1-84. [PDF file]
  • Lieftinck, M.A. (1969). Odonates Anisoptères - Odonata Anisoptera. Explor. hydrob. Lac Bangweolo and Luapula, 14, 1-64. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1971). Odonata collected in Republique Centre-Africaine by R. Pujol. Arnoldia, 5, 1-16. [PDF file]
  • Schmidt, E. (1951). Libellen aus Portugiesisch Guinea, mit Bemerkungen über andere aethiopische Odonaten. Arquivos Museu Bocage, 20, 125-200. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1955). The Odonata of N. Angola. Part I. Publicacoes culturais Companhia Diamantes Angola, 27, 11-63. [PDF file]
  • Calvert, P.P. (1899). Neuropterous insects collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in Northeastern Africa. Ecological Entomology, 51, 228-244. [PDF file]
  • D' Andrea, M., and Carfi, S. (1997). Nuove raccolte di odonati del Camerun con note su Agriocnemis maclachlani Selys, 1877 edescrizione di Agriocnemis dissimilis sp. nov. e Trithemis osvaldae sp. nov. Atti Societa italiana Scienze naturali, 136, 157-190. [PDF file]

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. http://addo.adu.org.za/ [2018-02-22].