Crocothemis sanguinolenta (Burmeister, 1839)
Little Scarlet

Type locality: Cape Province, South Africa

Diagnosis

See C. erythraea and genus introduction for separation from that species. Male is similar to C. brevistigma by (a) face often red with maturity; (b) no cell-doublings in radial planate of all wings, although rarely 1 or 2; (c) yellow at wing bases broad, in Hw usually extends beyond Cux; (d) lobe of hamule not swollen, hook usually well visible; (e) Abd 3 mm or less wide; (f) lateral carinae of S3-7 usually with (often small) black dashes; (g) S5 with 10-14 denticles along lateral carina; and in females (h) vulvar scale pressed against Abd. However, differs by (1) being widespread; (2) body largely orange to red (rather than cream to brown) with maturity, at most narrowly black on lateral carinae of S3-8 and most extensive on S3-4; (3) yellow in Fw often not extending beyond Cux, in Hw at most to arculus, although occasionally exactly as C. brevistigma; (4) Pt often over 2.5 mm; (5) Abd broad rather than slender, and tapering towards end, S4 about as long as wide; and in females (6) tip of vulvar scale reaches well beyond end of S9, even beyond S10. [Adapted from Dijkstra & Clausnitzer 2014]

Habitat description

Mostly streams, but also headwaters, in open landscapes, open areas in forest or shaded by gallery forest. Often faster sections with emergent vegetation and rocks. From 0 to 2300 m above sea level, but mostly below 1800.

Distribution

confirmed: Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo-Brazzaville; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinee-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Republic of Guinea; Republic of South Africa; Rwanda; São Tomé & Príncipe; Sierra Leone; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe


Male © Allan Brandon


Abdominal segment 2 (lateral view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.


Barcode specimen(s):


Adult, male; South Africa, Western Cape, Stettynskloof © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, Upemba National Park © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Female; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Liberia, Nimba County, © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Tanzania, Kigoma Region, Lower Malagarasi Basin © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Adult, male; Zimbabwe, Manicaland, Chimanimani National Park © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.

References

  • Burmeister, H. (1839). Handbuch der Entomologie. 2(2), 2. Neuroptera. [Handbuch der Entomologie. Zweiter Band, Befondere Entomologie. Zweite Abtheilung. Kauterfe. Gymnognatha. (Zweite hälfte; vulgo Neuroptera)]. Enslin, Berlin 755-1050. Odonata, 805-862.
  • Ris, F. (1921). The Odonata or Dragonflies of South Africa. Annals South African Museum, XVIII, 245-452. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1961). Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central Africa. Occasional Papers Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 14, 1-97. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1966). Check-list of dragonflies (Odonata) from Malawi, with description of a new Teinobasis Kirby. Arnoldia, 2, 1-24. [PDF file]
  • Barnard, K.H. (1937). Notes on dragon-flies (Odonata) of the S. W. Cape with descriptions of the nymphs and of new species. Annals South African Museum, 32, 169-260. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1959). The Odonata of N. Angola. Part II. Publicacoes culturais Companhia Diamantes Angola, 45, 13-42. [PDF file]
  • Förster, F. (1906). Die Libellulidengattungen von Afrika und Madagaskar. Jahresbericht Mannheimer Vereins Naturkunde, 72, 1-67.
  • Schouteden, H. (1934). Annales Musee Congo belge Zoologie 3 Section 2, 3, 1-84. [PDF file]
  • Lieftinck, M.A. (1969). Odonates Anisoptères - Odonata Anisoptera. Explor. hydrob. Lac Bangweolo and Luapula, 14, 1-64. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1971). Odonata collected in Republique Centre-Africaine by R. Pujol. Arnoldia, 5, 1-16. [PDF file]
  • Schmidt, E. (1951). Libellen aus Portugiesisch Guinea, mit Bemerkungen über andere aethiopische Odonaten. Arquivos Museu Bocage, 20, 125-200. [PDF file]
  • Sjöstedt, Y. (1909) Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905-1906 unter Leitung von Prof. Dr. Yngve Sjöstedt. 14. Pseudoneuroptera. 1. Odonata. Stockholm 14 (1): 1-52

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. http://addo.adu.org.za/ [2019-04-23].