Crocothemis erythraea (Brullé, 1832)
Broad Scarlet

Type locality: Cape Province, South Africa

Diagnosis

Male is similar to C. brevistigma and C. sanguinolenta by (a) face often red with maturity; (b) yellow at wing bases broad, in Hw usually extends beyond Cux; (c) no cell-doublings in radial planate of all wings, although rarely 1 or 2. However, differs by (1) Pt 3.5-4.0 mm; (2) lobe of hamule rather swollen, usually obscuring hook in lateral view; (3) Abd 3.5 mm wide or more; (4) lateral carinae of S3-7 usually unmarked; (5) S5 with 17-22 denticles along lateral carina; and in females (6) vulvar scale almost perpendicular to Abd. [Adapted from Dijkstra & Clausnitzer 2014]

Habitat description

Mostly standing and often temporary waters, but sometimes rivers, streams and possibly large lakes, in open landscapes. Often with emergent vegetation and a soft (like muddy) bottom. From 0 to 2300 m above sea level, but mostly below 1800.

Distribution

confirmed: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Côte d'Ivoire; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo-Brazzaville; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinee-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Libya; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Republic of Guinea; Republic of South Africa; Rwanda; São Tomé & Príncipe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Socotra (Yemen); Somalia; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; Western Sahara; Zambia; Zimbabwe; NOT confirmed: Lesotho


Male © Paul Schrijvershof


Abdominal segment 2 (lateral view)

Head (dorsal view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.


Barcode specimen(s):


Adult, female; Zimbabwe, Manicaland, Vumba Mts © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Adult, male; Angola, Uige Province, new campus site and environs © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Adult, male; Angola, Uige Province, new campus site and environs © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Adult, male; Angola, Uige Province, new campus site and environs © Clausnitzer, V. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Sierra Leone, Eastern Province, Gola Forest © Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & A. Dayeker


Male; Tanzania, Kigoma Region, Lower Malagarasi Basin © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Province Orientale, Kisangani © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Liberia, Grand Gedeh County, Putu Iron Ore Mining concession © Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & A. Dayeker

References

  • Brullé, A. (1832). Arachnides. Myriapodes. Insectes and Annelides. In: Expediton scientifique de Morée. Section des sciences physiques (sous la direction de M. Bory de Saint-Vincent). Volume 1, Section 2. Des Animaux Articulés. Levrault, Strasbourg, 1-400.
  • Ris, F. (1921). The Odonata or Dragonflies of South Africa. Annals South African Museum, XVIII, 245-452. [PDF file]
  • Balinsky, B.I. (1961). Observations on the dragonfly fauna of the coastal region of Zululand, with descriptions of three new species (Odonata). Journal Entomological Society Southern Africa, 24, 72-91. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1931). A list of the Odonata of British Somaliland and a description of a new species of the genus Enallagma. Entomologist, 64, 274-278. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1961). Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central Africa. Occasional Papers Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 14, 1-97. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1966). Check-list of dragonflies (Odonata) from Malawi, with description of a new Teinobasis Kirby. Arnoldia, 2, 1-24. [PDF file]
  • Barnard, K.H. (1937). Notes on dragon-flies (Odonata) of the S. W. Cape with descriptions of the nymphs and of new species. Annals South African Museum, 32, 169-260. [PDF file]
  • Sjöstedt, Y. (1900). Odonaten aus Kamerun, West -Afrika. Beltrage Zur Kenntnis der insektenfauna von Kamerun. Binhang Kongliga Svenka VetenskapsAkademiens Handlingar, 25, 1-62.
  • Lieftinck, M.A. (1969). Odonates Anisoptères - Odonata Anisoptera. Explor. hydrob. Lac Bangweolo and Luapula, 14, 1-64. [PDF file]
  • Kirby, W.F. (1900). Report on the Neuroptera Odonata collected by Mr E. E. Austen at Sierra Leone during August and September 1899. Annals Magazine Natural History, 6, 67-79. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1971). Odonata collected in Republique Centre-Africaine by R. Pujol. Arnoldia, 5, 1-16. [PDF file]
  • Schmidt, E. (1951) Libellen aus Portugiesisch Guinea, mit Bemerkungen über andere aethiopische Odonaten. Arquivos Museu Bocage 20 (1949): 125-200 [PDF file]
  • Calvert, P. P. (1899) Neuropterous insects collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in Northeastern Africa. Ecological Entomology 51: 228-244 [PDF file]
  • D' Andrea, M., and Carfi, S. (1997). Nuove raccolte di odonati del Camerun con note su Agriocnemis maclachlani Selys, 1877 edescrizione di Agriocnemis dissimilis sp. nov. e Trithemis osvaldae sp. nov. Atti Societa italiana Scienze naturali, 136, 157-190. [PDF file]
  • Sjöstedt, Y. (1909). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905-1906 unter Leitung von Prof. Dr. Yngve Sjöstedt. 14. Pseudoneuroptera. Odonata, 14, 1-52.

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. http://addo.adu.org.za/ [2020-01-27].